CSS Grid Layout

2020-Jun-2

📚 w3schools CSS Grid Layout Module

💨 by Eugene Ruthven

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🔽 1. Grid Elements
🔽 2. Grid Container
🔽 3. Grid Item

Offers a grid-based layout system with rows and columns.

This makes it easier to design web pages without having to use floats and positioning.


1. Grid Elements 🔼

A grid layout consists of a parent element with one or more child elements.

<style>
.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  grid-template-columns:auto auto auto;
  background-color:#2196F3;
  padding:10px;
}

.grid-item {
  background-color:rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.8);
  border:1px solid rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.8);
  padding:20px;
  font-size:30px;
  text-align:center;
}
</style>

 

<div class="grid-container">
  <div class="grid-item">1</div>
  <div class="grid-item">2</div>
  <div class="grid-item">3</div>
  <div class="grid-item">4</div>
  <div class="grid-item">5</div>
  <div class="grid-item">6</div>
  <div class="grid-item">7</div>
  <div class="grid-item">8</div>
  <div class="grid-item">9</div>
</div> 

 

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Display Property

An HTML element becomes a grid container when its display property is set to:
grid
or
inline-grid

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
}

or

.grid-container {
  display:inline-grid;
}

All direct children of the grid container automatically become grid items.

Grid Columns
The vertical lines of grid items are called columns.

Grid Rows
The horizontal lines of grid items are called rows.

Grid Gaps The spaces between each column/row are called gaps.

The gap size is adjusted by using one of the following properties:
grid-column-gap
grid-row-gap
grid-gap

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  grid-column-gap:50px;
}

The grid-gap property is a shorthand property for the grid-row-gap and the grid-column-gap properties:

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  grid-gap:50px 100px;
}

The grid-gap property can also be used to set both the row gap and the column gap in one value:

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  grid-gap:50px;
}

Grid Lines

The lines between columns are called column lines.

The lines between rows are called row lines.

Refer to line numbers when placing a grid item in a grid container.

Place a grid item at column line 1, and let it end on column line 3:

.item1 {
  grid-column-start:1;
  grid-column-end:3;
}

Place a grid item at row line 1, and let it end on row line 3:

.item1 {
 grid-row-start:1;
  grid-row-end:3;
}


2. Grid Container 🔼

📚 w3schools CSS Grid Container

To make an HTML element behave as a grid container set display property to:
grid
or
inline-grid

Grid containers consist of grid items placed inside columns and rows.

The grid-template-columns Property

The grid-template-columns property defines:
the number of columns in the grid layout
and
can define the width of each column

The value is a space-separated-list where each value defines the width of the respective column.

To have a grid layout to contain 4 columns:
specify the width of the 4 columns
or
auto if all columns should have the same width

/* Example Make a grid with 4 columns */
.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  grid-template-columns:auto auto auto auto;
}

📝 Note: If there are more than 4 items in a 4 column grid, the grid will automatically add a new row to put the items in.

The grid-template-columns property can also be used to specify the size/width of the columns.

/* Example Set size for 4 columns */
.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  grid-template-columns:80px 200px auto 40px;
}

The grid-template-rows Property

The grid-template-rows property defines the height of each row.

The value is a space-separated-list where each value defines the height of the respective row:

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  grid-template-rows:80px 200px;
}

The justify-content Property

The justify-content property is used to align the whole grid inside the container. Possible values:
center
space-evenly
space-around
space-between
start
end

📝 Note: The grid's total width has to be less than the container's width for the justify-content property to have any effect.

Examples:
.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  justify-content:center; /* <-Note */
}

or

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  justify-content:space-evenly; /* <-Note */
}

or

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  justify-content:space-around; /* <-Note */
}

or

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  justify-content:between; /* <-Note */
}

or

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  justify-content:start; /* <-Note */
}

or

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  justify-content:end; /* <-Note */
}

The align-content Property

The align-content property is used to vertically align the whole grid inside the container. Possible values:
center
space-evenly
space-around
space-between
start
end

📝 Note:The grid's total height has to be less than the container's height for the align-content property to have any effect.

Examples:
.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  height:400px;
  align-content:center; /* <-Note */
} 

or

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  height:400px;
  align-content:space-evenly; /* <-Note */
}

or

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  height:400px;
  align-content:space-around; /* <-Note */
}

or

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  height:400px;
  align-content:space-between; /* <-Note */
}

or

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  height:400px;
  align-content:start; /* <-Note */
}

or

.grid-container {
  display:grid;
  height:400px;
  align-content:end; /* <-Note */
}

3. Grid Item 🔼

📚 w3schools CSS Grid Item

Child Elements (Items)

A grid container contains grid items.

By default, a container has one grid item for each column, in each row, but styling grid items can be done so that they will span multiple columns and/or rows.

The grid-column Property

The grid-column property defines on which column(s) to place an item.

Can define where the item will start, and where the item will end.

📝 Note: The grid-column property is a shorthand property for the grid-column-start and the grid-column-end properties.

To place an item, refer to line numbers or use the keyword span to define how many columns the item will span.

Example:
Make item1 start on column 1 and end before column 5:
.item1 {
  grid-column:1 / 5;
} 

Make item1 start on column 1 and span 3 columns:
.item1 {
  grid-column:1 / span 3;
} 

Make item2 start on column 2 and span 3 columns:
.item2 {
  grid-column:2 / span 3;
} 

The grid-row Property

The grid-row property defines on which row to place an item.

Can define where the item will start, and where the item will end.

📝 Note: The grid-row property is a shorthand property for the grid-row-start and the grid-row-end properties.

To place an item, refer to
line numbers
or
use the keyword span
to define how many rows the item will span.

Example:
Make item1 start on row-line 1 and end on row-line 4:
.item1 {
  grid-row:1 / 4;
} 

Make item1 start on row 1 and span 2 rows:
.item1 {
  grid-row:1 / span 2;
} 

The grid-area Property

The grid-area property can be used as a shorthand property for the:
grid-row-start
grid-column-start
grid-row-end
grid-column-end
properties.

Example:
Make item8 start on row-line 1 and column-line 2, and end on row-line 5 and column line 6:
.item8 {
  grid-area:1 / 2 / 5 / 6;
} 

Make item8 start on row-line 2 and column-line 1, and span 2 rows and 3 columns:
.item8 {
  grid-area:2 / 1 / span 2 / span 3;
} 

Naming Grid Items

The grid-area property can also be used to assign names to grid items.

Named grid items can be referred to by the grid-template-areas property of the grid container.

Example:
Item1 gets the name myArea and spans all five columns in a five columns grid layout:
.item1 {
  grid-area:myArea;
}

.grid-container {
  grid-template-areas:'myArea myArea myArea myArea myArea'; /* <-Note: apostrophes not double quotes */
}

Each row is defined by apostrophes (' ').

The columns in each row is defined inside the apostrophes, separated by a space.

📝 Note: A period sign represents a grid item with no name.

Example:
Let myArea span two columns in a five columns grid layout (period signs represent items with no name):
.item1 {
  grid-area:myArea;
}

.grid-container {
  grid-template-areas:'myArea myArea . . .';
} 

To define two rows, define the column of the second row inside another set of apostrophes.
Example
Make item1 span two columns and two rows:
.grid-container {
  grid-template-areas:'myArea myArea . . .' 'myArea myArea . . .';
} 

Example:
Name all items, and make a ready-to-use webpage template:
.item1 { grid-area:header; }
.item2 { grid-area:menu; }
.item3 { grid-area:main; }
.item4 { grid-area:right; }
.item5 { grid-area:footer; }

.grid-container {
  grid-template-areas:
    'header header header header header header'
    'menu main main main right right'
    'menu footer footer footer footer footer';

The Order of the Items

The Grid Layout allows us to position the items anywhere we like.

The first item in the HTML code does not have to appear as the first item in the grid.

.item1 { grid-area:1 / 3 / 2 / 4; }
.item2 { grid-area:2 / 3 / 3 / 4; }
.item3 { grid-area:1 / 1 / 2 / 2; }
.item4 { grid-area:1 / 2 / 2 / 3; }
.item5 { grid-area:2 / 1 / 3 / 2; }
.item6 { grid-area:2 / 2 / 3 / 3; }

Can re-arrange the order for certain screen sizes, by using media queries:
@media only screen and (max-width:500px) {
  .item1 { grid-area:1 / span 3 / 2 / 4; }
  .item2 { grid-area:3 / 3 / 4 / 4; }
  .item3 { grid-area:2 / 1 / 3 / 2; }
  .item4 { grid-area:2 / 2 / span 2 / 3; }
  .item5 { grid-area:3 / 1 / 4 / 2; }
  .item6 { grid-area:2 / 3 / 3 / 4; }
}
🔼

🏆 🎈 The End!!! 🏁 📣